Age-related Macular Degeneration, more commonly called AMD, is a degenerative condition affecting the central portion of the retina at the back of your eye.
There are two types of AMD, dry and wet.
The macula wears down and gets thinner with age, and vision is gradually reduced, making fine details more difficult to see. Night vision, or adaptation to dimmer light such as walking into a dark lift from the bright outdoors may be reduced. These may not be initially noticeable if the AMD occurs in just one eye, with good vision still present in the other unaffected eye.
Subsequently, there may be distortions in your central vision due to deposits on the retina, and eventually, the tissue at the macula can atrophy or die-off, causing blindspots in the central vision.
Approximately 10% of dry AMD progresses to this type, where blood vessels grow at the macula, leaking blood and other fluids. This can occur more abruptly, causing distortions such as straight lines looking wavy, sudden blind spots, or loss of central vision.
If you have been diagnosed with AMD, it is important to visit your eye doctor regularly even if you do not notice any significant changes in your vision. Tests to visualise your macula through a cross-section scan or the use of a fluorescent dye to check for leaky blood vessels can give essential information on the progression and extent of AMD.
Risk factors include old age, a positive family history, smoking, obsesity, and possibly sunlight exposure (but not fully proven). You may reduce your risk by adopting healthy lifestyle habits such as cessation of smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, and including a variety of fruits, vegetables, and fish into your diet.
Any changes in your vision, such as reduced visual acuity or distortions, should be evaluated by an eye doctor immediately.
 (Zhou, Zhang, Yu, et. al., 2018)
 (Delcourt, Cougnard-Grégoire, Boniol, et. al., 2014)